Romarriket

Instuderingsuppgifter. Allt är skyddat av upphovsrättslagen, och att utge dig för att vara författaren till detta är ett brott som kan leda till domstol.

1. Hur fungerade systemet med Pater familias och Mater familias?Pater familias eller mater familias är mannen alternativt kvinnan som var överhuvudet i familjen, och var en slags förmyndare över alla andra i familjen eller släkten. Det betyder bokstavligt ”familjefadern” eller ”familjemodern”, men de stod över alla andra, inklusive bröder, kusiner etcetera. De hade till exempel rätt att sälja de andra till slaveri om de ville.

2. Beskriv kortfattat styrelseskicket inom den romerska republiken.Rom blev republik på 500-talet före Kristus och förblev så till år 49 före Kristus när Julius Caesar utropade sig själv till diktator på livstid. Ordet ”republik” kommer från res publica, latin betydandes ”det allmänna” – staten eller samhället. Roms mest förnämsta män satt i ett senat, och senaten utsåg varje år två konsuler som styrde landet som regering när fred rådde och generaler i krig, men senaten kunde ständigt protestera och var tvungen att godkänna mycket konsulerna bestämde. Konsulerna var alltid två, dels för att kunna hålla koll på varandra och dels för att en skulle kunna styra trupperna i krig medan den andre stannade i Rom och hade koll på riket.

3. På vilket sätt kan man säga att hela Romarriket byggde på ett system av slavar?Rom och Grekland var två av de första samhällena att vara mer eller mindre beroende av slavar. Slavar hade även funnits förut, men inte i samma omfattning som här, då slavarna i Romarriket var runt tre miljoner medan de fria människorna var runt sju eller åtta miljoner. Slavarna ersatte så småningom många av de hårdaste arbeten Romarnas samhälle var beroende av. De flesta arbetade i jordbruket, men många fria män hade också personliga slavar i hushållet. Antalet slavar minskades kraftigt på 300-talet efter Kristus, bland annat för att de fattiga fria männen fick det svårare, och när de tog dåliga jobb som slavar tidigare gjort sjönk de till samma rang, och man hade inte samma användning för slavarna.

4. Beskriv kristendomens utveckling inom Romarriket.Den grundläggande religionen i Romarriket liknade mer eller mindre en pakt mellan människor och gudar. Människor offrade eller utförde riter mot att gudarna hjälpte dem i livet. Då denna religion inte direkt kunde visa en genomgod gud att skänka hopp till folket, vände sig många till andra religioner. I öst började flera så kallade mysteriereligioner dyka upp. Dessa religioner gav död och återuppståndelse stor betydelse, och de lovade de troende att visa livets och dödens djupaste hemligheter. Den mysteriereligion som växte störst och till sist vann kampen om att bli en majoritet var kristendomen, mycket på grund av att den vände sig mot alla människor, rika som fattiga, mäktiga som slavar, och även kvinnor som ofta blev utestängda.

Kristendomen var först en sekt inom judendomen, men de kristna ledarna bestämde sig för att vända sig till alla människor, inte bara judar, och där kan man säga att kristendomen blev mer än en sekt, en religion. Kristendomen och judendomen började snart oroa de Romerska kejsarna, då de ofta höll sig för sig själva och inte umgicks med de hediska. Exempel på det växande judehatet var att Jerusalem förstördes år 70 efter Kristus, och igen på 130-talet. På 200-talet växte den kristna förföljelsen, och kristendom blev ett brott – utövarna kunde bestraffas med döden.

På 320-talet förklarade kejsar Konstantin kristendom Romarrikets officiella religion, när den kristna befolkningen stigit mot tio till tjugo procent. Anledning till detta var enligt honom själv att Gud framträdigt för honom och visat ett kors i himlen, men förmodligen var den egentliga anledning att Konstantins mor övergick till kristendomen, och att han insåg att om de fortsatte med lagarna skulle det tvunget gälla även henne. 

Monty Python live at the Hollywood Bowl (1982)

Monty Python Live at the Hollywood Bowl In 1982, Monty Python filmed a concert performed at the Hollywood Bowl, a concert with a perfect mix of their most famous sketches as well as new material written especially for the concert.It’s  a show with some of my absolute favorite sketches, including the Lumberjack Song, the Ministry of Silly Walks and Nudge Nudge, and some great new ones as well, for example the Crunchy Frog sketch, How Sweet to Be an Idiot and Comedy Lecture.The only thing avoiding it to receive 10 stars instead of eight is the non-includance of the Dirty Fork sketch and that it’s so damn short, 01:17 h.

 ********eight stars

Naturkunskap: Instuderingsfrågor

Diverse frågor och svar angående naturkunskap. 

Förklara begreppet ekologi.Ekologi är den vetenskap som beskriver samspelet mellan levande organismer och dess miljöer, till exempel hur de påverkas av överlevnadsfaktorer såsom näringstillgång, ljus, syre, naturliga fiender med mera. Kort sagt kan man säga att ekologi är vetenskapen om hur naturen fungerar utan människans inblandning.

Förklara begreppet art.Djur och växter brukar delas in i arter, det vill säga efter sina genetiska besläktningar. Oerhört många mindre arter är även besläktade med varandra så att man kan se stora likheter mellan till exempel hund och varg, även om de inte är av samma art.

Ge exempel på ekosystem i din närmiljö.Ett exempel på ett ekosystem bara hundra meter från mitt hem är ett närbeläget träsk i början av en mindre skog, där människan i princip aldrig träder sin fot. Träsket kryllar av grodor, insekter, ödlor och växter, och det är ett tydligt kretslopp där man äter eller äts. Grodorna och ödlorna lever till exempel på insekterna som själva bland annat tar varandra, eller små kryp vid vattennivån. Allt går nedåt i ett kretslopp där de minsta är näst intill osynliga, ett kretslopp av vad som verkar som hundratals arter.

Fotosyntesen är en kemisk process. Hur går det till? Varför kan man kalla det ett kretslopp?Fotosyntes är när växter med hjälp av färgämnet klorofyll och solenergi omvandlar koldioxid, som tas upp ur luften, till socker och syre. Det som skapas används antingen till tillväxt för plantan, eller som lagring – anledningen till varför vissa växter smakar sött. Syret som släpps ut efter processen andas bland annat av djur och blir åter till koldioxid, som åter igen tas upp och görs om till syre. Att detta återvinns om och om igen är vad som gör fotosyntes till ett kretslopp.

Vilka är producenterna, konsumenterna och nedbrytarna i fotosyntesen?Växterna som byggs starkare av energin är producenterna, djuren som äter dem (och även de som i andra ledet äter de djuren) är konsumenterna. När dessa dött tar nedbrytarna hand om resterna. De omvandlas då till koldioxid, vatten och växtnäringsämnen. Nedbrytarna är exempelvis bakterier, insektslarver, svampar, gråsuggor, spindlar och daggmaskar.

Förklara begreppet kolets kretslopp. Vad heter det med ett annat ord?Allt känt levande består bland annat av kol, som tas upp av växter i fotosyntesen i form av koldioxid, som då omvandlas till kolhydrater och syre. Koldioxid återförs igen genom bland annat djurens utandning, och när nedbrytarna tar hand om rester från döda. Sedan industrialismen har människan påverkar utsläppen av koldioxid grovt då förbränningen av organiska ämnen (i detta fall exempelvis kol, petroleum och naturgas) släpper ut enorma mängder koldioxid.

Eftersom allt är ett så kallat kretslopp så borde det ju vara okej att förbränna fossila bränslen. Är det det? I annat fall varför inte?Det är inte okej. Då jorden som sagt är ett kretslopp är det omöjligt att förinta någonting. Allt som ”förbrukas” återkommer, ingenting försvinner komplett. När människan gräver upp till exempel naturgas och förbränner det bildas koldioxid som aldrig kommer försvinna. Självklart fanns det även innan, men då djupt nere i jorden och hade ingen möjlighet att skada miljön. Se det som att släppa ut ett oövervinnerligt monster från dess igenstängda håla.

Beskriv hur en näringsväv fungerar.En näringsväv är i princip en näringskedja, vem som äter vem i en lång kedja med producenterna längst ned och toppkonsumenterna högst upp. En näringsväv visar hur olika gifter och näringsämnen sprids i djurriket genom att visa vem som hade det först och hur det spreds genom att djuret åts av ett annat.

Vad menas med att ett ämne är ett miljögift?Miljögifter är ämnen som inte passar in i ekosystemet och förstör för växter eller organismer när de sprids. Miljögifter är ofta väldigt stabila, vilket innebär att det tar lång tid för dem att brytas isär. Miljögifter kan vara antingen organiska (uppbyggda av kol) eller oorganiska, och kan antingen vara naturliga eller konstgjorda, skapta av människan.

Hur påverkas toppkonsumenterna i en näringsväv när det är miljögifter inblandat?Även om bara ett djur i en näringsväv åtar sig ett miljögift, påverkas enkelt många andra i näringsväven. Exempel: Om djuret – i detta fall kan vi ta exemplet en insekt – blir uppäten av en fisk överförs giftet till denne. När fisken i sin tur äts av en större fisk, som kanske är toppkonsumenten i kedjan, överförs miljögiftet dit.

Vilken betydelse har fjällämlarna i den svenska naturen?Fjällämlar är ett bra exempel på ett bytesdjur som rovdjur är ytterst beroende av. Om det finns väldigt få fjällämlar skulle färre rovdjur få mat och de skulle inte kunna föröka sig lika mycket. Med andra ord sjunker antalet rovdjur med antalet fjällämlar, och likaså ökar de tillsammans med. Vår naturs mångfald är med andra ord ytterst beroende av fjällämlar.

Vilka faktorer avgör antalet individer i ett ekosystem?Mängd föda (växter, bytesdjur, vatten med mera), organiska fiender (rovdjur), miljögifter, klimat (om det är en ovanligt kall vinter exempelvis). Människan kan också vara en viktig faktor – om det är jaktsäsong, om människan söker nya boplatser och måste undanröja skog för detta, etcetera.

9/11

September 11th is here again. I can’t think of the date without recalling the two events shedding blood upon it. The 911 bombings in the States in 2001, and the murder of Swedish foreign minister Anna Lindh in 2003. The latter might not seem like a big event, yet its fifth anniversary fills up the Swedish papers of today. The murder of Anna Lindh was a new sign of the evil today – Sweden is no longer a little innocent country despite its original nature and it’s relatively small population. More murders, more crimes whatsoever. And soon terrorism is upon us too.

Nightwish to release photobook: "Dark Passion Gallery"

Dark Passion GalleryFinnish symphonic power metal band Nightwish has reported their forthcoming release of a photojournal by Ville Akseli Juurikkala (photographer of bands such as HIM, Apocalyptica and The 69 Eyes), with photos from their 2007 – 2008 Dark Passion Play Tour, entitled Dark Passion Gallery. Gah, a wasteless thing, sure, but I still NEED it. €25. Cannot… afford…

Sonata Arctica fallback

After barely listening to one of my top favorite bands ever, Finnish power metal Sonata Arctica, for almost half a year, I’ve fallen back again – ofcourse resulting in listening to them almost exclusively. Especially their latest album Unia (2007) has caught my attention, and it all started as I heard the bonus track ”Out in the Fields” (Gary Moore cover) for the first time, a few days ago. Unia is also one of those albums you really don’t get the first time, but after a few listens… it’s great. Caleb is still my favorite song on the album, and one of their best songs together as well.And the fact that I’ve fallen back into Sonata Arctica is great for the fact that I’m seeing them live on November 1st as well! 

Top manga series right now

I really don’t read much manga (anymore, I was a real diehard mangafreak in 2005-2006), but since this blog after all have the URL http://blog.mangaworld.se I thought I had to write something about manga just once. And btw, that URL it temporary, and if I could afford it I’d get another one (hopeswerehigh.com or whatever). In other words: Click the ads and bring me the sweet sweet money!

My favorite manga series right now (I don’t follow all of these, but I’ve read at least 5 or 6 tankôbons of each, mostly more)

  • Case Closed / Detective Conan

  • Love Hina

  • Death Note

  • Battle Royale

  • Dragon Ball / Dragon Ball Z

  • One Piece

  • Kajika

  • Naruto

I just had to write that list. Sorry. Now carry on with your lives, tiny mortals.

MY RACE WILL DESTROY YOU ALL (Futurama reference for teh win)

Wish I Had an Angel and Bye Bye Beautiful part of a story?

Hint-hint! I don’t think you ought to read this journal unless you’re more or less all-knowing about the story of Tarja Turunen being kicked out of Nightwish in 2005, and their new singer Anette Olzon, who joined them in 2007. I know very well I’m a geek, so shut the fuck up about telling me. Thank you.

TarjaI read in an interview with Tuomas Holopainen (keyboardist and composer of band Nightwish) that he concider their songs SpelaWish I Had an Angel (from 2004 album Once) and Bye Bye Beautiful (Dark Passion Play, 2007) as part of the same story lyrics-wise.It has also been rumoured that Master Holopainen had a crush, which was verified in an interview – even if he wasn’t deeply in love with her, he at least had a mere crush on her, ”as did almost everyone as she was a very beautiful woman”. My theory: Wish I Had an Angel is about his platonic love towards Tarja, the ”angel” which he cannot have. The subject of Bye Bye Beautiful is obvious as well as verified – it’s about firing Tarja from Nightwish. In other words, the story can be like this:Part 1 (Wish I Had an Angel):Tuomas has a crush about Tarja, yet isn’t loved back.Part 2 (Bye Bye Beautiful):Tarja is fired from Nightwish in 2005 partly due to her lack of interest in the band, and her changed attitude making her a complete bitch (my interpretation of the words in the letter (see the sources)). This doesn’t have to have anything to do with Tuomas’ crush on Tarja, but still this is a way of making the clear statement that he doesn’t want to be with the one he loves. Also, as is conspired among many fans and tabloids, the real reason of firing Tarja was because he couldn’t stand not having her. Either way, I do think this was a part. It seems like it, if Wish I Had an Angel and Bye Bye Beautiful really are parts of the same story.Sources:* Tuomas’ Nightmailhttp://www.nightwish.com/en/community/nightmail* Tuomas talks about Dark Passion Playhttp://www.tuomasholopainen.net/darkpassionplay.html* Open letter to Tarja in which she is firedhttp://nightwish.com/en/article/6

Comments: (taken from the Last.fm article)

Rozen-rot:

Hey, very interesting, I didn’t know he had said that. Here’s my possible explanation. Its hard to infere meaning because the lyrics of WIHAA don’t actually make that much sense, but lets have a go at analyzing them anyway. ”Deep into a dying day”. Here, ‘dying day’ could represent the end of the old era, meaning that the decision to fire Tarja is on his mind, and he is ‘deep into’ it [perhaps he is refering to the infamous letter, ‘deep into writing it’]. ”I took a step outside an innocent heart”. This could refer to the realization by Tuomas that as the boss he has to do something which will not go down well with the fans. He won’t be seen as innocent, in many cases he will be singled out and hated. Or perhaps Tuomas already feels guilty for what he will do, and thus his heart is no longer innocent. Or maybe this is reference to Tarja, that greed has made her heart loose its innocence.

”Prepare to hate me fall when I may, This night will hurt you like never before”. Tuomas seems to be saying this might be the worse mistake of my career – ‘fall when I may’, and at same time preparing Tarja, acknowledging that this will likely end their friendship. But a link to BBB – did you ever listened to what we played?”Old loves they die hard.” Love doesn’t have to mean ”in love”. Tuomas has stated many times that he has loved her voice, and that she was beautiful, but call me crazy but that doesn’t sound like anything more then admiration. Tarja was his muse, and he loved her. But I don’t believe he was ever ”in love” with her. [He has a girlfriend].”I wish I had an Angel for one moment of love. I wish I had your Angel, your Virgin Mary undone”. Tuomas wants an Angel? In the first line that doesn’t have to mean Tarja. Following the first versus if Tuomas is considering firing Tarja, maybe angel is symbolic of a female vocalist whom he can love [not in the dirty way] and be inspired by, as is no longer the case with Tarja. In the second part, that might refer to Tarja, he wants her angel, as the way she was before the change in her character.”I’m in love with my lust”. Lust is a sin. Like greed. ”Burning angel wings to dust”. What I infere from these two lines is, its not working out. 1. These could be representative of Tarja, she is saying I’m in love with my sin and its causing destruction, literally turning the band relationships to dust, or 2. Tuomas is saying because he is allowing the problem to remain, he is causing the destruction. ”I wish I had your angel tonight” – Tuomas really wants the old Tarja back.’Drunken disguise changes all the rule’ – Tuomas admitting he has an drink problem.Okay not going to do anymore because I’ve run out of time. Might tomorrow if this sparks up a quarrel ;P. But anyway I would agree with Tuomas that they follow the same story but I don’t seen WIHAA as an unrequired love song for Tarja, seems more like a warning to me Of course I have the gift of hindsight on my side.Also note that it ends on ‘I wish I had an Angel’ four times, rather then ‘Your angel’. Suggesting Tuomas wants an angel [new vocalist] really badly.The problem of course with lyrics is that they are completely open to intrepretation. For all we know Tuomas put them together because they were pretty.

Quispiam (me):

Thanks for showing such an interest. I don’t think he was in love with her either, I guess I expressed myself unclear. Having a crush, being in love, those are two different things. I would say that either1) He was in love with her, but knew he couldn’t have her. That’s why it varies so much between (as your theory goes) that he wants to fire her, and that he says he wants her to be his (”I wish I had your angel tonight”); he knows it’s impossible, yet
he cannot help to think ”but maybe I can have her after all…” I know since I’ve been in the same position, and it’s quite tough on you. He also doesn’t say that he wants HER, that she IS the angel, he says he wants HER angel, i.e. what she used to be and maybe still is deep inside….or…2) He wasn’t in love with her, but Marcelo destroyed her through his greed, as described in Master Passion Greed, destroyed his old beloved friend. He didn’t want this to happen, he wanted the old Tarja back. Even though he’s not in love with her, he admires the old Tarja enough to refer to her as an angel. Think of her as a shell with the old Tarja either killed long ago, or trapped inside the shell. Desperately, Master Holopainen tries to bring her out, more and more realising that he can’t. She is long gone. He realises that he if he can’t reach the angel inside the shell, he has to destroy the shell too, metaphorically. Through firing her. I would say that the song is about dealing with those strong emotions when he has to get rid of his long lost friend. Think of it yourself; you have a friend who (choose yourself if you want to see it metaphorically or not) you love till the end, yet he is trapped inside a demon. You try to find your friend within the demon’s heart, but you slowly realises that your friend has become the demon. He is not your friend any more. He is, against his will, a demon. The angel is trapped within the demon, what is there to do but to through a burning crucifix at the demon?I’m sorry I may sound rather poetic, I’ve been working on a song text the whole day… 😛Eternalwanderer:@The above: I like your second theory. In addition to making sense, it’s ridiculously nicely worded.Anyways, your whole theory makes sense to me, though I can’t say as I’m nearly as familiar with every word master Holopainen has ever spoken.Solyndra:In the biography he said however that WIHAA was written (or he came up with the idea) when he went to a bar with his girlfriend at the time and that all the guys were lusting after her. And I believe it kinda pissed him off xD His girlfriend at the time couldn’t have been Tarja because she was already married, and BBB is definitely directed at her.So I think the storyline could be correct lyricwise, but I don’t think the actual facts connected to the lyrics are connected as well.And by the way – in 2004 the band and Tarja were still friends. It went wrong during the tour, not before, if my memory serves right.Quispaim (me):Solyndra: You’re right, he have said that. That’s the one con in my theory, maybe I should have mentioned it.And yes, they have said that it was during the tourings, but also that they never rehearsed Once together. The guys had one shift, Tarja another, so they barely met. Maybe Tuomas already thought of this, and the tour was what made it worse.Rozen-rot:I think tensions had been arising for a long time, I mean they didn’t just happen over night. Look at Century Child released in 2004, Tuomas doesn’t seem to be in a good mood writing that one. Then factor in he wanted to leave. Problems were brewing for a few years prior to that release.That and the lovely Mrs Turunen stating in an interview that she and Tuomas were never friends. Nice.Quispiam (me):Rozen-rot: Little is known about why he wanted to leave Nightwish after Wishmaster (or was it after Over the Hills and Far Away?), all he has said is that ”they felt musical differences among the members”. That’s also why he fired Sami, who according to him didn’t have a similar goal in their musical life (they’re still friends though), and why so much changed with Century Child. I don’t think it has to do with Tarja, really.Solyndra:It wasn’t just the band. He has also said his personal life had pretty much collapsed at this point..BlackDahlia333:I did believe that there was a connection between these two songs. Even the music sounds somehow simalar. So as far as we know that BBB is about Tarja why don’t believe that WIHAA is about her too? Tuomas has said she was his muse so I think he loved her (I’m not saying he was in love with her) Tarja had express her willing for solo career before the release of Once so maybe Tuomas was thinking his options.Quispiam (me):Yeah, well, I don’t think Tuomas was (nor is) in love with Tarja; neither WIHAA nor BBB really suggest love (more than friendship, respect, passion etc.).And yes, I know that if I were Tuomas I’d want to kill all the fans discussing his deeply personal problems, but hell, I have too much free time. GreyWolf84:I found your journal wandering on lastfm..I hope it’s ok if I add my comment on the matter..Actually Tarja husband really stated Tuomas was in love with her (read Marcelo Cabuli answers, in Tarja’s wikipedia). And Tarja confirmed it.Now I’m not sure which kind of love was it..for sure it wasn’t just a random crush since Marcelo quoted Tuomas own words saying ”nobody was able to stop his love for Tarja” . Maybe it was platonic, maybe it was more physical..but according to Tarja and Marcelo he was for a long time in love with her.Going back to the song..BBB is surely about Tarja . I don’t think WIHAA has a connection with her..When Tuomas talked about ”sister songs” I think he meant music-wise, not lyricswise.As someone said it, the song was written after a night in a bar with his girlfriend and guys started to hit on her..and Tuomas didn’t know what to do and was kinda pissed. I’ve never understand how the lyrics are connected to the event, however this is what Tuomas said.Quispiam (me):@GreyWolf84: Ofcourse, and I haven’t ”decided” for an opinion or theory of my own, I merely debate on facts and guesses. I have read Tarja’s letter, and I know that she and Marcelo over and over again has said that Tuomas did feel for her and that he did confess this, more or less threatening Marcelo to leave her. However this is word against word, and we’ll never know who’s right. Tuomas states he didn’t feel anything more than a crush for Tarja, and that was years ago, back in the late 1990’s. I would presume he more or less admired her, felt a platonic love, but that he had accepted that he could not have her. When Marcelo stepped into the picture he was pissed of, partly in jealousy, but mostly simply because he destroyed his friend. That’s my theory.Your theory on BBB and WIHAA is very possible, and I can at least somewhat relate the lyrics of WIHAA to that event, if it’s written from their point of view.

Google Chrome

Google Chrome I just downloaded and installed the beta version of Google’s long awaited new browser Google Chrome, and it’s great. Ofcourse it’s just a beta version, but I can’t see much to change. Its simple design is great and it leaves lots of room for the actual webpage and less to useless fields of the program.

Download it!

The Twilight Zone

I have heard a lot of the original ”The Twilight Zone” series, running from 1959 – 1964, and I finally downloaded it entirely (24,1 GB, gah) yesterday and watched the first episode (”Where is Everybody”), and it was great.

The Twilight Zone

 The Twilight Zone was a series of  free-standing episodes of horror, fantasy and science-fiction, and lots of the episodes are afterwards copied by film directors, authors etcetera, and are referenced for example by The Simpsons (where I actually heard of the show at first).What I love about my family is how I’ve been raised with all these classic films, shows, comics, etcetera; my mother has renewed on a monthly Donald Duck comic since the late 1960’s and still renews on it (although at first it was in her father’s name while she lived there, and now it’s in her name while she lives here), and she’s learned me to love the Monty Python gang, and movies from the 1970’s and 1980’s, such as Indiana Jones, Star Wars and Back to the Future etcetera. Thus, I’m surprised my mother hasn’t even mentioned The Twilight Zone earlier. However, when I first told her that I had downloaded and watched it, her respons was that she was happy for me, since it’s among the greatest series ever, that she followed when she was younger (even though it ended a year before her birth it started airing in Sweden several years later).Anyway, a great show, recommended to EVERYONE! Watch it! 

 * * * * * * *seven stars